Pool Chemical Research

Chlorine Studies and Research

1.   “Swimmers’ Asthma” The Serious Heatlh Problem With Chlorinated Pools, Published by Brent S. Rushall, Ph.D San Diego State University, highlights the complacency of using chlorine, a dangerous chemical, as a means of sanitizing pool water. Chlorine sanitizing effectiveness declines rapidly as soon as chlorine is added to the pool water. The paper goes on to state, pool managers often over chlorinate a pool to offset reduced chlorine effectiveness.  Dr. Rushall also states “heightened concentration of chlorine often leads to excessive absorption through the skin and inspiration leading to breathing problems in many swimmers.” and ” the general rule-of-thumb about over chlorinated pool is: If you can smell the chlorine in the pool environment, it is dangerously high” Read the paper here.

2.  Dr. Alfred Bernard, professor of toxicology and research director at Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, studied children that attended chlorinated swimming pools.  The study found that chlorine pools can increase the child’s risk of asthma and other respiratory related issues by six times. Study Details

3.  National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, review for “Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients” lists chlorine as on e of the important triggers of asthma and other respiratory issues in young adults.Read The Review

4.  The American Journal of Epidemiology published an article for John Hopkins School of Public Health.  The study looked at the impact of exposure to disinfection by-products by ingestion and swimming pools on bladder cancer.    The results showed that THM’s, a chlorine by-product, could increase lifetime bladder cancer chances by over an astounding 50%. More details on the study can be found here.


1. Use of Ozone in the Treatment of Swimming Pools and Spas http://jspsi.poolhelp.com/articles/jspsi_v4n1_pp41-53.pdf

2. Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment, Gim Eagleton, EPA  http://www.o3international.com/aboutOzone/pdf/ozone_drinking_water.pdf